In June 2007, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a guideline document on infection prevention and control entitled Infection prevention and control of epidemic- and pandemic-prone acute respiratory diseases in health care — WHO interim guidelines (WHO, 2007). In this new guideline, natural ventilation is considered for the first time among the effective measures to control infections in health care. Such a recommendation from WHO demonstrates a growing recognition of the role of ventilation and natural ventilation for infection control.
The 2007 guideline demonstrated that further study was required in areas such as minimum requirements for natural ventilation and design, construction, operation and maintenance for effective natural ventilation systems for infection control.
Over the past two years, a multidisciplinary team of engineers, architects, infection-control experts and microbiologists has been working to... [Read More]
METHODS FOR INDOOR AIR DISINFECTION AND PURIFICATION FROM AIRBORNE PATHOGENS FOR APPLICATION IN HVAC SYSTEMS
Z. D. Bolashikov†, and A. K. Melikov
International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark, www.ie.dtu.dk
The present paper is a review on methods and technologies for air cleaning from micro organisms and viruses, which are applicable with the present HVAC practices. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration (HEPA, ULPA), ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification is critically analyzed with respect to the used today air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature,... [Read More]
Sustainability “How-To Guide” Series: Getting Started
The detailed findings in this Getting Started Guide include a step-by-step process for assessing your organization, finding your starting point, identifying initiatives, evaluating their value, and implementing, measuring and monitoring their effectiveness. Those steps include the "how-to" suggestions for:
• Taking your organization’s temperature
• Creating alignment
• Establishing your starting point
• Creating and prioritizing sustainable initiatives
• Implementing, measuring and monitoring your plan
Getting Started also includes information on making the business case for a SFM program. This includes outlining a process for the program and finding the right approach for your organization that is aligned with available time and resources.
For general audiences, this fact sheet provides accurate information regarding the use of ozone-generating devices in indoor occupied spaces. This information is based on the most credible scientific evidence currently available. Whether in its pure form or mixed with other chemicals, ozone can be harmful to health. Available scientific evidence shows that, at concentrations that do not exceed public health standards, ozone is generally ineffective in controlling indoor air pollution. The public is advised to use proven methods proven to be both safe and effective to reduce pollutant concentrations, which include controlling pollutant sources and increasing outdoor air ventilation.
The Building Air Quality Action Plan meets the needs of building owners and managers who want an easy-to-understand path for taking their building from current conditions and practices to the successful institutionalization of good IAQ management practices. It emphasizes changing how you operate and maintain your building, not increasing the amount of work or cost of maintaining your building. The BAQ Action Plan follows 8 logical steps and includes a 100-item Checklist that is designed to help verify implementation of the Action Plan. This guidance is available here only as a PDF file.
Building Air Quality: A Guide for Building Owners and Facility Managers
The Building Air Quality, developed by the EPA and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, provides practical suggestions on preventing, identifying, and resolving indoor air quality (IAQ) problems in public and commercial buildings. This guidance provides information on factors affecting indoor air quality; describes how to develop an IAQ profile of building conditions and create an IAQ management plan; describes investigative strategies to identify causes of IAQ problems; and provides criteria for assessing alternative mitigation strategies, determining whether a problem has been resolved, and deciding whether to consult outside technical specialists. Other topics included in the guide are key problem causing factors; air quality sampling; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems; moisture problems; and additional sources of information.
Indoor Air Pollution: An Introduction for Health Professionals
Assists health professionals (especially the primary care physician) in diagnosis of patient symptoms that could be related to an indoor air pollution problem. Addresses the health problems that may be caused by contaminants encountered daily in the home and office. Organized according to pollutant or pollutant groups such as environmental tobacco smoke, VOCs, biological pollutants, and sick building syndrome, this booklet lists key signs and symptoms from exposure to these pollutants, provides a diagnostic checklist and quick reference summary, and includes suggestions for remedial action. Also includes references for information contained in each section. Co-sponsored by: The American Lung Association (ALA), The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), and The American Medical Association (AMA) U.S. Government Printing Office Publication No. 1994-523-217/81322,... [Read More]
This brochure provides quick and simple overview of some key indoor air pollutants including radon, secondhand smoke, asthma triggers, volatile organic compounds, molds and combustion pollutants. The brochure unfolds into a poster that features action steps to improving indoor air.
This brochure is written in easy-to-understand language for the general consumer interested in the technical differences among the various air cleaners available. The brochure provides types of indoor air pollutants and air cleaning devices; performance of air cleaning devices in removing indoor air pollutants; general information on the health effects of indoor air pollutants; and additional factors to consider when deciding whether to use an air cleaning device. This brochure replaces "Residential Air Cleaners - Indoor Air Facts No. 7," (EPA 20A-4001, February 1990)
Residential Air Cleaners (Second Edition) A Summary of Available Information
This publication focuses on air cleaners for residential uses; it does not address air cleaners used in large or commercial structures such as office buildings, schools, large apartment buildings, or public buildings. It should be particularly useful to residential housing design professionals, public health officials, and indoor air quality professionals. This version replaces "Residential Air-cleaning Devices: A Summary of Available Information" (EPA 400-1-90-002, February 1990)
Building commissioning is a quality assurance process that spans the entire design and construction process, helping ensure that the new buildings performance meets owner expectations.
Describes the building commissioning process. You can read it cover-to-cover, or skip around to find only the information you need.
Is written for building owners, managers, and operators, but others involved in the commissioning process will also find it useful.
Answers the following questions:
What is building commissioning and why should I implement the process?
What are the benefits and costs of commissioning?
How do I hire a commissioning lead and integrate them into my existing team?
What happens during the commissioning process and how does it relate to design and construction?
Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005
Prepared by Paul A. Jensen, PhD, Lauren A. Lambert, MPH, Michael F. Iademarco, MD, Renee Ridzon, MD
Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, National Center for HIV, STD, and TB Prevention